Key Performance Indicators

Department of Health and Social Services

Mission

To promote and protect the health and well-being of Alaskans. AS 47.05.101

Priority 1. Health & Wellness Across the Lifespan
Priority 2. Health Care Access, Delivery & Value
Priority 3. Safe & Responsible Individuals, Families & Communities

Key Performance Indicators

FY17 Management Plan as of 12/15/2016 (in thousands)

Department of Health and Social

Services Totals

FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$1,084,344.2$107,904.7$103,332.1$1,440,250.9$2,735,831.93,4194885

1. Protect and promote the health of Alaskans.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$374,945.9$52,465.2$47,142.8$707,178.5$1,181,732.4916230
2. Provide quality of life in a safe living environment for Alaskans.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$378,749.7$13,117.2$20,365.5$407,329.7$819,562.17051520
3. Manage health care coverage for Alaskans in need.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$37,162.9$4,683.3$4,373.8$75,535.8$121,755.816076
4. Facilitate access to affordable health care for Alaskans.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$34,925.1$4,819.1$2,849.9$76,357.1$118,951.28911
5. Strengthen Alaska families.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$81,241.3$10,700.4$9,762.9$57,826.1$159,530.743295
6. Protect vulnerable Alaskans.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$143,750.4$20,632.4$16,300.8$101,785.6$282,469.28891415
7. Promote personal responsibility and accountable decisions by Alaskans.
FundingPositions
UGF
Funds
DGF
Funds
Other
Funds
Federal
Funds
Total
Funds
Full
Time
Part
Time
Non
Perm
$33,568.9$1,487.1$2,536.4$14,238.1$51,830.522808

Performance Detail


1: Protect and promote the health of Alaskans.
    
Target #1: Cost of injury prevention program per capita

Methodology: Division of Public Health injury prevention program budget, per capita
Source: Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease and Health Promotion and Department of Labor and Workforce Development population estimates


Total Per Capita Cost of Public Health Injury Prevention Programs
Fiscal Year YTD Total
FY 2015
$0.96
FY 2014
$0.93
FY 2013
$0.72
FY 2012
$0.75
FY 2011
$0.79
    
Target #2: Cost to fully immunize a child 19 - 35 months of age

Methodology: Cost of purchasing vaccines to meet the 4/3/1/3/3/1/4 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended vaccine series for children 19-35 months of age. The cost of vaccine is based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control federal pediatric vaccine contract price and use of the state recommended vaccine formulary. Cost does not reflect any staffing time, shipping costs or administration fees.
Source: Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Immunization Program


Cost to Fully Immunize a Child 19 - 35 Months of Age
Year YTD Total
2016
$1113
2015
$1084
2014
$1059
2013
$1022
    
Target #3: Percent of children 19 - 35 months of age who are fully immunized

Methodology: Children 19 - 35 months of age "active" in Alaska's Immunization Information System (VacTrAK) who are up to date with the vaccination series recommended by the national Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. "Active" is defined as having two or more vaccines reported to VacTrAK. Up to date series reported reflects 4 doses Diphtheria/Tetanus/acellular, Pertussis: 3 doses, Polio: 1 dose, Measles/Mumps/Rubella: 3 doses, Haemophilus influenzae type b: 3 doses, Hepatitis B: 1 dose, Varicella: 4 doses, and Pnuemococcal congugate vaccines.
Source: Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Immunization Program, VacTrAK (Alaska's Immunization Information System)


Percent of Children 19 - 35 Months of Age Who are Fully Immunized
Fiscal Year Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
FY 2016
60.6%
60.6%
0
0
FY 2015
58.9%
59.2%
60.4%
60.3%
FY 2014
49.1%
51.5%
55.5%
59.1%
FY 2013
40.5%
41.6%
43.8%
47.2%
    
Target #4: Rate of Alaskans experiencing unintentional injuries

Methodology: Overall crude unintentional injury rate of all in need (per 100,000 persons) for persons experiencing unintentional injury resulting in either treatment by a medical professional or death.
Source: Division of Public Health Alaska Trauma Registry / Health Facility Discharge Data / Bureau of Vital Statistics and Department of Labor & Workforce Development population estimates


Unintentional Injury Rate (per 100,000 persons)
Year YTD Total
2015
496.7
+10.45%
2014
449.7
+7%
2013
420.3
-9.03%
2012
462.0
-1.89%
2011
470.9
-3.76%
2010
489.3

2: Provide quality of life in a safe living environment for Alaskans.
    
Target #1: Average cost of Long Term Services and Supports per recipient

Methodology: This performance measure is calculated by taking the average cost of long term care services rendered during the fiscal year per Medicaid recipient. There are four categories of service that indicate the use of long term care services (010 – Short Term LTC Services; 011 – SNF Nursing Home; 012 – ICF Nursing Home; 013 – ICF/MR Service). This Division utilizes MMIS Enterprise and Cognos to query long term care billing claims. It is important to note that providers have a year to bill from the date of service, which may bias the overall average.

Average Cost of Long Term Services and Supports per Recipient
Fiscal Year Average cost
FY 2016
$149,362
FY 2015
$153,412
FY 2014
$118,406
FY 2013
$122,330
FY 2012
$111,788
FY 2011
$102,251
FY 2010
$85,284
FY 2009
$78,421
    
Target #2: Number of months Long Term Services and Supports recipients are able to remain in their home before institutional placement

Methodology: This performance measure is calculated by averaging the age of all the Medicaid long term services and supports recipients who were placed in an institution during a fiscal year and then converting the age into months. Recipients’ age is calculated by the computing the difference between their date of birth and the initial date of institutional placement (i.e., first date of service at the long term care facility). There are four categories of service that indicate institutional placement (010 – Short Term LTC Services; 011 – SNF Nursing Home; 012 – ICF Nursing Home; 013 – ICF/MR Service). This Division utilizes MMIS Enterprise and Cognos to query long term care billing claims. It is important to note that providers have a year to bill from the date of service, which may bias the overall number of months.

Number of Months Long Term Services and Supports Recipients are able to Remain in their Home before Institutional Placement
Fiscal Year Number of Months
FY 2016
846.12
+1.54%
FY 2015
833.29
-5.21%
FY 2014
879.12
+0.88%
FY 2013
871.44
+0.35%
FY 2012
868.36
+0.28%
FY 2011
865.92
+0.77%
FY 2010
859.32
+0.41%
FY 2009
855.84
    
Target #3: Percent of assessments (investigations) completed timely

Methodology: Of all initial assessments completed in the report period, the percent that were completed within 45 days

Numerator: Of the assessments in the denominator, the number that were completed within 45 days
Denominator: The total number of initial assessments completed during the report period


Percent of Assessments (Investigations) Completed Timely
Fiscal Year YTD Total
FY 2016
19.87%
FY 2015
15.74%
FY 2014
17.86%
FY 2013
20.94%
    
Target #4: Percent of child abuse/neglect assessments (investigations) that are initiated within required timeframes

Methodology: Of all initial assessments completed in the report period, the percent that were initiated within the following timeframes: (one combined rate is reported)
< = 1 day for Priority 1 reports
< = 3 days for Priority 2 reports
< = 7 days for Prioirty 3 reports
Numerator: Number of assessments in the denominator that were initiated timely
Denominator: Total number of initial assessments completed in the report period that were not closed without finding.


Percent of Child Abuse/Neglect Assessments (Investigations) that are Initiated within Required Timeframes
Fiscal Year YTD Total
FY 2016
54.94%
FY 2015
51.12%
FY 2014
50.24%
FY 2013
57.5%
FY 2012
51.1%

3: Manage health care coverage for Alaskans in need.
    
Target #1: Cost to provide health care services per client

Methodology: Cognos decision support system (starting 7/1/2014); STARS decision support system (7/1/2013) Note: The Division of Health Care Services makes every effort to ensure that reported numbers are as accurate as possible. However, due to possible defects in the new Health Enterprise Medicaid Management Information System, claims processing system (including converted historical records), the data provided in this report is to be considered a draft and may be updated in future iterations.



Cost to Provide Health Care Services per Client FY2010-2016 (In Dollars)
Fiscal Year Cost per Client
FY 2016
926.00
-4.97%
FY 2015
974.45
+40.09%
FY 2014
695.59
-30.02%
FY 2013
994.02
-0.07%
FY 2012
994.71
-1.92%
FY 2011
1,014.14
+2.62%
FY 2010
988.20

Analysis of results and challenges: The cost to provide health care services per client was at its highest in FY2011, $1,014.14. For fiscal years 2012 and 2013, the cost remained steady at around $994.00. For FY2014 the cost declined to $695.59. However, due to system implementation, and a resulting payment of suspended claims, cost per individual increased in FY 2015 to $974.45, an increase of approx. 40.09%. By FY2016, this cost had declined by $48.00 to $926.00 compared to FY2015.
    
Target #2: Percent of individuals served by the department with access to a regular primary care provider

Methodology: Cognos decision support system (starting 7-1-2014; STARS decision support system (7-1-2013) Note: The Division of Health Care Services makes every effort to ensure that reported numbers are as accurate as possible. However, due to possible defects in the new Health Enterprise Medicaid Management Information System, claims processing system (including converted historical records), the data provided in this report is to be considered a draft and may be updated in future iterations.



Percent of Individuals Accessing Primary Care Providers FY2010-2016
Fiscal Year Percent
FY 2016
78.96
+1.63%
FY 2015
77.69
+15.85%
FY 2014
67.06
-7.63%
FY 2013
72.6
-3.46%
FY 2012
75.2
-0.13%
FY 2011
75.3
-1.31%
FY 2010
76.3

Analysis of results and challenges: There was a steady decline in the percent of individuals accessing primary care providers from FY2010 to FY2014. In FY2010 76.6% of Medicaid eligible individuals accessed primary care providers. By FY 2014 that number had declined to 67.06%. However, FY 2015 saw a substantial increase in access of 10.63% to 77.69%. In FY 2016, 78.96% of Medicaid eligible individuals were provided access to primary care providers.

4: Facilitate access to affordable health care for Alaskans.
    
Target #1: Cost per recipient

Methodology: Cognos decision support system (starting 7/1/2014); STARS decision support system (7/1/2013) Note: The Division of Health Care Services makes every effort to ensure that reported numbers are as accurate as possible. However, due to possible defects in the new Health Enterprise Medicaid Management Information System, claims processing system (including converted historical records), the data provided in this report is to be considered a draft and may be updated in future iterations.



Cost per Recipient (Based on Medicaid Eligibles That Utilize Services)
Fiscal Year Cost per Recipient
FY 2016
9,431
-7.96%
FY 2015
10,247
+10.06%
FY 2014
9,310
-1.43%
FY 2013
9,445
-2.29%
FY 2012
9,666
-7.76%
FY 2011
10,479
-2.29%
FY 2010
10,725

Analysis of results and challenges: The cost per Medicaid recipient steadily declined from FY2010 to FY2014. In FY2010 the cost per Medicaid recipient was $10,725. By FY2014 that cost had declined to $9,310, a difference of $1,415. FY 2015 witnessed an increase in cost per recipient of 10.06%, to $10,247 average per recipient. BY FY2016 cost per recipient declined by $816 to $9,431 compared to FY2015.
    
Target #2: Number of rendering providers participating in the Medicaid program

Methodology: Note: The number of providers that rendered services on a paid claim for reimbursement will be obtained from a standard management report from Cognos for the reporting period.



Number of Rendering Providers Participating in the Medicaid Program
Fiscal Year Number of Providers
FY 2016
16,895
+5.97%
FY 2015
15,943
+0.34%
FY 2014
15,889
+3.22%
FY 2013
15,393
+5.09%
FY 2012
14,647
+25.49%
FY 2011
11,672
+45.21%
FY 2010
8,038

Analysis of results and challenges: The number of participating rendering providers providing Medicaid Services in Alaska has shown a steady increase from 8,038 in FY 2010 to 16,895 in FY 2016. The rate of enrollment for rendering providers slowed somewhat over the two fiscal year (as noted in the above table) period from FY2013 to FY2014, indications are that rendering provider enrollment will continue an upward trend as shown in FY2015 and FY2016.
    
Target #3: Percent change in number of rendering providers participating

Methodology: Note: The percentage of providers that rendered services on a paid claim for reimbursement will be obtained from a standard management report from Cognos. Divide the number of participating rendering providers by the number of enrolled providers to obtain the percentage of providers providing Medicaid health care services for the reporting period.


Percentage Change in Participating Medicaid Providers FY2010-2016
Fiscal Year Percent Change
FY 2016
60.2
+0.67%
FY 2015
59.8
+3.46%
FY 2014
57.8
-9.4%
FY 2013
63.8
-8.2%
FY 2012
69.5
+5.3%
FY 2011
66.0
-5.98%
FY 2010
70.2

Analysis of results and challenges: The percentage of participating rendering providers has shown fluctuations between fiscal years, but also depicts a steady decline in Medicaid provider participation. This decline appears to have concluded, with FY 2015 showing an increase of 3.46%. FY2016 shows a slight percentage increase of 0.67% compared to FY2015.
    
Target #4: Percent of Medicaid eligibles who utilize Medicaid Services

Methodology: Cognos decision support system (starting 7/1/2014); STARS decision support system (7/1/2013) Note: The Division of Health Care Services makes every effort to ensure that reported numbers are as accurate as possible. However, due to possible defects in the new Health Enterprise Medicaid Management Information System, claims processing system (including converted historical records), the data provided in this report is to be considered a draft and may be updated in future iterations.



Percent of Medicaid Eligibles Utilizing Medicaid Services FY2010-2016
Fiscal Year Percent
FY 2016
93.10
+2.35%
FY 2015
90.96
+0.33%
FY 2014
90.66
-5.52%
FY 2013
95.96
+0.87%
FY 2012
95.13
+11.83%
FY 2011
85.07
+0.05%
FY 2010
85.03

Analysis of results and challenges: The percent of Medicaid eligibles utilizing Medicaid services increased from FY2010 to FY2013 by approx. 11%. FY 2012-2013 witnessed a peak utilization of 95% before the percentage decreased to 90% in FY14. FY 2015 held nearly steady in utilization, with an increase of .33%. In FY2016 utilization increased by 2.35% compared to FY2015.

5: Strengthen Alaska families.
    
Target #1: Accuracy rate for open Food Stamp cases


Accuracy Rate for Open Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Cases
Year YTD Total
2016
97.6%
2015
99.4%
2014
99.2%
2013
98.8%
2012
99%
2011
99.3%
2010
98.3%
2009
96.3%
2008
92.6%
2007
96.1%
    
Target #2: Average time from receipt of initial application to eligibility determination


Average time from receipt of initial application to eligibility determination (in days).
Year YTD Total
2016
18
-33.33%
2015
27
+125%
2014
12
0%
2013
12
+33.33%
2012
9
-10%
2011
10
-44.44%
2010
18
-5.26%
2009
19
+5.56%
2008
18
    
Target #3: Cost of supported employment services per successful participant in Job Start or on-the-job training


Costs of Supportive Services for Clients on Temporary Assistance
Year YTD Total
2016
$721.77
2015
$825.08
2014
$985.97
2013
$973.76
2012
$627.42
    
Target #4: Percent of individuals receiving employment related services from the department who achieve employment

Methodology: Numerator: Number of adults in the Temporary Assistance Program who have earned income; Denominator: Number of adults in the Temporary Assistance Program who are work eligible.

Source:


Percent of Adults on Temporary Assistance with Earned Income
Year YTD Total
2016
48.1%
2015
36.2%
2014
35.6%
2013
37.9%
2012
36.8%
2011
38.3%
2010
36.1%
2009
36.6%
2008
43.2%
2007
45.3%

6: Protect vulnerable Alaskans.
    
Target #1: Average time to initiate an investigation

Methodology: This performance measure is calculated by averaging the number of business days it takes Adult Protective Service investigations to conduct the initial face-to-face contact with the alleged victim of abuse, neglect, or exploitation once the report of harm is received by the Division of Senior and Disabilities Services. The Division strives to conduct the initial face-to-face visit within 10 business days of receiving the report of harm. The Division utilizes its database system, DS3 (Division of Senior and Disabilities Services Database System), to store and monitor all data pertaining to Adult Protective Services.

Average number of Business Days to Initiate an Investigation
Fiscal Year Average days to initiate
FY 2016
7
+16.67%
FY 2015
6
+20%
FY 2014
5
+25%
FY 2013
4
0%
FY 2012
4
-20%
FY 2011
5
-28.57%
FY 2010
7
-22.22%
FY 2009
9
    
Target #2: Average Time to Provisional Employment Eligibility Status

Methodology: Background Check Program

Average Time To Provisional Employment Eligibility - FY 2012-2016
Fiscal Year Number of Days
FY 2016
0.5
-83.33%
FY 2015
3.0
+50%
FY 2014
2.0
0%
FY 2013
2.0
-60%
FY 2012
5.0

Analysis of results and challenges: The average time it takes to complete an application for a background check for provisional work status once all information has been received has decreased from 5 days in FY2012 to just 2 days from FY 2013 - 2014. FY 2015 saw an increase of 1 day, or 50%, due to NABCS build and implementation. In FY2016 the Background Check Section has reduced that time to one-half day, a significant improvement compared to FY2012.
    
Target #3: Cost of administering background check program

Methodology: Background Check Program, Health Care Services Administration

Cost of Administering Background Check Program FY2012-2016
Fiscal Year Cost of Program
FY 2016
1,737,200
-15.65%
FY 2015
2,059,500
-5.08%
FY 2014
2,169,761
-5.74%
FY 2013
2,301,959
+3.43%
FY 2012
2,225,667

Analysis of results and challenges: The cost of administering the background check program from FY2012 to FY2014 was just over $2,000,000 for each year, with a peak cost in FY2013 of $2,301,959. With the implementation of a new Background Check system (NABCS), efficiencies have been realized, lowering costs for administering the program to $2,059,500 in FY2015, a decrease of 5.08% compared to FY2014. Background check costs declined even further in FY2016 to $1,737,200 or 15.65% compared to FY2015.
    
Target #4: Percent of Alaska adults with substantiated reports of abuse or neglect

Methodology: This performance measure is calculated by taking the percentage of Alaskan adults with at least one report of harm having at least one substantiated allegation. The percentage is calculated by taking the unduplicated count of adults who had at least one report of harm filed for them with at least one allegation determined to be substantiated at the conclusion of the Adult Protective Service investigation over the estimated population of Alaska for the year being targeted. There are two important caveats to the methodology used to calculate this performance measure: first, The population estimates are taken from the U.S. Census, and it encompasses the entire population of Alaska, not just adults. Secondly, the number of adults with substantiated reports of harm is subject to change at any given point in time, because investigations can take a weeks and months to close. Both of these caveats can potentially bias the overall percentage. The Division utilizes its database system, DS3 (Division of Senior and Disabilities Services Database System), to store and monitor all data pertaining to Adult Protective Services.

Percent of Alaska Adults with Substantiated Reports of Abuse or Neglect
Fiscal Year Percent substantiated
FY 2016
.11%
FY 2015
.07%
FY 2014
.07%
FY 2013
.08%
FY 2012
.10%
FY 2011
.12%
FY 2010
.08%
FY 2009
.07%
    
Target #5: Percent of background checks completed within established timeframes

Methodology: Background Check Program

Percent of Background Checks Completed Within Established Timeframes - FY 2013-2016
Fiscal Year Percent
FY 2016
100.0
0%
FY 2015
100.0
0%
FY 2014
100.0
0%
FY 2013
100.0

Analysis of results and challenges: The percent of background checks completed within established timeframes is 100% from FY 2013 - FY 2016. Completed within established timeframes refers to applications moved to final determination status within 90 days.
    
Target #6: Percent of children discharged from out-of-home care who are reunified with their parents

Methodology: Of all children discharged during the year who had been in out-of-home care for at least eight days, the percent that were discharged to reunification

Numerator: Of the children in the denominator, the number whose last discharge of the year had a discharge reason of reunification
Denominator: The unique number of children placed out-of-home for at least eight days who were discharged during the year


Percent of Children Discharged from Out-of-Home Care who are Reunified with their Parents
Fiscal Year YTD Total
FFY 2016
57.2%
FFY 2015
49.7%
FFY 2014
50.3%
FFY 2013
53.9%
FFY 2012
52.2%
    
Target #7: Percent of children who re-enter out-of-home care within twelve months

Methodology: Of all children discharged from foster care to reunification in the 12-month period prior to the year shown, the percent that re-entered foster care in less then 12 months from the date of discharge.

Numerator: The number of children in the denominator who re-entered out of home care in less than 12 months from the date of discharge
Denominator: The unique number of children discharged to reunification in the preceding year


Percent of Children who Re-enter Out-of-home Care within Twelve Months
Fiscal Year YTD Total
FFY 2016
10.1%
FFY 2015
13.9%
FFY 2014
12.5%
FFY 2013
8.1%
FFY 2012
12%

7: Promote personal responsibility and accountable decisions by Alaskans.
    
Target #1: Cost per day for probation services based on average daily population

Methodology: The cost per day for the Probation core service is calculated by taking the cost for each probation region and then allocating to each region portions of Director's Office and Delinquency Prevention components, and Youth Court expenditures. The population of youth receiving probation services is based on the number of juveniles with open supervision or intake records in the fiscal year. The total number of youth receiving probation services for the year is divided by 365 to come up with an average daily population.



FY2012-FY2015 Cost per Day for Probation Services Based on Average Daily Population
Fiscal Year Cost Per Day
FY 2016
$37.12
FY 2015
$40.86
FY 2014
$40.91
FY 2013
$33.91
FY 2012
$33.43

Analysis of results and challenges: The cost to provide probation services to a youth in Alaska has remained fairly stable over the past three years. Changes in the number of youth referred to the division from year to year is the largest factor in creating fluctuations in the cost per day for probation services. Declines in referrals over the past three years result in the division being able to allocate more attention and services to individual youth, which increases the cost of probation services per youth.

Costs to provide probation services vary slightly depending on the regions in which these services are provided. For example, probation services in regions with many rural communities generally are more expensive than those in urban regions because of increased costs for travel, supplies, and other resources.

    
Target #2: Program savings per fraud investigator


Program Savings Per Fraud Investigator
Year YTD Total
2016
$611,137
2015
$655,159
2014
$561,759
2013
$840,354
2012
$452,304
2011
$394,905
2010
$287,738
2009
$204,041
2008
$226,404
2007
$209,087
    
Target #3: Reduce the rate of recidivism for juveniles released from Division of Juvenile Justice Probation

Methodology: For juveniles to be counted as recidivists in the data above, adjudication and conviction information on offenses that were committed 24 months after release from probation supervision must have been entered in the division’s Juvenile Offender Management Information System or the Alaska Public Safety Information Network by July 3, 2016. The analysis also excludes youth who were ordered to an Alaskan juvenile treatment facility any time prior to their supervision end date, as these youth are included in the analysis for our juvenile treatment facilities, below. Non-criminal motor vehicle, Fish & Game, tobacco, and alcohol violations are not counted as re-offenses. Adjudications and convictions received outside Alaska also are excluded from this analysis.


FFY2010-FFY2015 Recidivism Rate for Juveniles Released from Division of Juvenile Justice Probation
Fiscal Year Recidivism Rate
FY 2016
35.2%
FY 2015
42.9%
FY 2014
45.5%
FY 2013
43.0%
FY 2012
40.7%
FY 2011
42.1%
FY 2010
42.8%

Analysis of results and challenges: This measure examines reoffense rates for juveniles who received probation supervision while either remaining at home or in a nonsecure custodial placement. These youths typically have committed less serious offenses and have demonstrated less chronic criminal behavior than youth who have been committed to a juvenile treatment facility.

Research has identified the factors that result in delinquent behavior. These are a history of offenses and involvement in the juvenile justice system, and challenges in these life areas: family circumstances/parenting; education/employment; peer relations; substance abuse; leisure/recreation; personality/behavior; and attitudes/orientation. The division has embarked on a number of efforts to improve our understanding of these factors and to reduce the risks and needs that result in juvenile recidivism.

 

Current as of November 18, 2016